Mit ‘Feminismus’ getaggte Beiträge

>> Link zur Prezi „Die gesellschaftliche Stellung von Frauen und Männern“

>> Kompetenzorientierte Aufgabenstellungen – Gesellschaftliche Stellung von Frauen und Männern als PDF



Laurie Penny, Unspeakable Things. Sex, Lies and Revolution. London 2014.

„Gender determines the shape of our fantasies. Good little boys are supposed to dream about changing the world, but good little girls are supposed to dream about changing ourselves. […] There comes a time when you have to decide whether to change yourself to fit the story, or to change the story itself. The decision gets a little easier if you understand that refusing to shape your life and personality to the contours of an unjust world is the best way to start creating a new one.“ (p. 21 & p. 38)

Laurie Penny was born in London in 1986 and grew up on the Internet. She studied English Literature at Wadham College, Oxford. In 2010 her blog Penny Red was shortlisted for the Orwell Prize for political writing. She is the Contributing Editor at New Statesman magazine and is konwn for reporting on protest and social movements. She currently has more than 100,000 followers on Twitter.


1.) Beauty Work

Men experience body policing too, of course. [But] Men’s physicality is not assumed to be everything they have to contribute. „Beauty“ for men, despite the best efforts of the cosmetics industry to persuade them otherwise, still involves little more than a shave, a slick of hair-gel and a clean T-shirt.

A recent survey by shopping channel QVC claimed that the average British woman spends £ 2,055 per year, or 11 per cent of the median full-time female salary, on maintaining and updating the way she looks. Men, by contrast, spend just 4 per cent of their salary on their appearance, most of which goes on shaving and the gym. („Beauty Bill of a Lifetime“, Daily Mail, 21 February 2011)

Maintaining order on the surface is important [for women]. We are supposed to be objects of desire, not desiring beings. […] Looking „good“, for a woman, involves sacrifice, hard work, illness, even death [in the case of eating disorders]. „Beauty“ for women involves hours of pain and expenses. Our bodies are the most important things about us, and left to themselves, they will betray us, become fat and unmanageable: they must be controlled.

Where once feminists complained of women’s „second shift“ of housework and childcare outside the workplace, the obligation to be highly achieving now infects every part of life: we must be academically successful, socially graceful, physically attractive, sexually alluring but not too „slutty“.

Feminist writer Naomi Wolf refers to „Beauty Work“ – the time, money and effort women have to put into „maintaining“ their appearance and cramming their physical selves into the narrow stereotype of conventional beauty standards – as a new third shift of labour, alongside women’s traditional „second shift“ of domestic and caring work [with the „first shift“ being working on their jobs earning money]

Glossy women’s magazines are manuals of self-transformation: change your body for summer, change your wardrobe for winter […]

Women’s fear of not being considered beautiful is well founded. Recent studies have proven what most of us have grown up knowing on a deep and painful level: that there is a cost, for every woman and girl, to departing from the norm of what society considers „beautiful“. (p. 34) Women and girls who deviate from current beauty norms in physical appearance, weight, style, race or gender presentation face discrimination at work and quantifiable obstacles in terms of pay and promotion.

Femininity, docility and prettiness, by which we mean the lifelong effort to look as much like an even-featured, underweight Caucasian girl in her early twenties as possible, are the entry tickets to a wider variety of jobs in which a few will make it big and most won’t make it out.

A report published in a recent issue of the „Journal of Applied Psychology“ revealed that the pay and influence of test groups of women in America and Germany consistently rose as their weight dropped below the healthy average, even when controlling factors that affect both weight and pay.  By contrast, weight gain was an indicator of financial success for males up to the point of extreme obesity, when men too begin to pay a professional penalty.

(T.A. Judge and D.M. Cable, “ When it comes to pay, do the thin win? The effect of weight on pay for men and women.“

2.) „Ugly feminists“

A great deal of what used to call itself „new feminism“ used to devote itself to reassuring women and girls that they could be empowered, independent political women and still be beautiful… Can I be a feminist if I love to wear lipstick and twirly dresses? Is it all right for empowered women to shave their legs? Feminism is not about telling women what (not) to wear or whether to shave their legs or not. The fall of patriarchy is unlike ly to begin or end with one woman’s decision to wear fishnets or grow out her armpit.politik_frauenstimmrecht_2

A lot of this nonsense is a response to the tired old stereotype of feminism as unbeautiful, and being unbeautiful – being ugly – is the worst thing a woman can ever be. That stereotype is harking back to the „Second-Wave feminists“ of the [1960s], 1970s and 1980s, some of whom did wear trousers and go unshaved. [But there also] was Gloria Steinem, whose classic bombshell looks allowed her to go undercover as a Playboy Bunny in Hugh Hefner’s original club to write an excoriating exposé of how women were treated in that weird world.What the stereotype of the bra-burning, hairy-legged feminist is really supposed to suggest is that feminism, that politics itself, makes a woman ugly. That women’s liberation is a threat to traditional ideas of femininity, of a woman’s social role. Which of course, it is, and always has been.

It’s interesting that „ugly“ is still the insult most commonly thrown at women to dismiss their power, to get them to shut up. Female politicians are called ugly by men who can’t quite bring themselves to say directly that they don’t deserve their power, that their primary purpose as women should be to please and arouse the opposite sex. I’ve lost count of the times I’ve been  told, on the Internet or in person, to „shut up, ugly bitch“, when men – or, occasionally women – were uncomfortable with something I was saying. At first I started turning up to talks and debates in my best clothes, in leather, in lipstick – but no amount of lipstick is ever going to make patriarchy comfortable with the words coming out of your mouth, if you have an ounce of ambition or anger.

„Fat“ is even more obvious. You’re gross, you take up too much space, get out of my sight. Men who occupy positions of power, of course, are allowed to run fat, lose interest in their appearance […]: their places at the top table will still be reserved.


3.) Women at work

Perhaps the cruelest trick played on my mother’s generation was the way they were duped into believing that the right to work in every low-paid, back-breaking job men do was the only and ultimate achievement of the women’s movement. Yes, in most Western countries, women now have the legal right to be paid equally for any job a man can do, although they have to get the job first. In practice, women are not working at the top of the pay and employment scale in large numbers. We are instead over-represented in low-paid, underpaid and unpaid work, just as we always have been, in domestic and care-sector work and other professions that remain at the bottom of the social heap in terms of pay and social status precisely because that work is traditionally done by women.

(mehr …)


>> Prezi zur Geschichte der Hexenverfolgung in der frühen Neuzeit

>> Gesellschaftliches Verhältnis von Frauen und Männern – Die Hexenverfolgung in der frühen Neuzeit als PDF



Die gesellschaftliche Stellung von Frauen und Männern – Erklärungsmodelle für die Hexenverfolgung


  1. Rekonstruiere mit Hilfe der Materialien 1 bis 9 sowie den Bildquellen im Buch GO!6, Seite 40 und Seite 42, die Tatbestände, die den Angeklagten bei Hexenprozessen vorgeworfen wurden
  • Welche Tätigkeiten sind abgebildet?
  • Welche Zeitpunkte, Orte usw. sind abgebildet?


  1. Untersuche die folgenden Materialien 1 bis 9 (inklusve der schriftlichen Anmerkungen) und rekonstruierte die darin enthaltenen Hexen- und Frauenbilder.
  • Welches Geschlecht, welches Alter, welche soziale Stellung, welche ethnische Zugehörigkeit haben die abgebildeten Menschen?


  1. Beschreibe mit Hilfe der Informationen aus dem Liniendiagramm (Material 10) die Dynamik (= Wann stieg die Zahl der Prozesse stark an? Wann war der Höhepunkt?) der Hexenverfolgung in Frankreich! Vergleiche diese Informationen mit der Information über die Hexenprozesse im deutschsprachigen Raum (= „Heiliges Römisches Reich“) auf Seite 43 im Buch GO!6!


  1. Erstelle mit Hilfe der Informationen aus der Material 11 eine hypothetische Erklärung (= mögliche Faktoren, die das Phänomen erklären können) für die Dynamik der Hexenverfolgung in Europa!


  1. Erörtere, welche der Materialien 1 bis 13 Belege für die von feministisch orientierten Historikerinnen vertretene Erklärung(en) für die Hexenverfolgung (= Materialien 15 & 16) liefern können!


  1. Diskussion: Ursachen und Hintergründe der Hexenverfolgung
  • Nimm Stellung zu den folgenden Aussagen begründe deine Ansicht mit Hilfe der zur Verfügung gestellten Quellen und Darstellungen.


  I agree totally I have minor objections I have major objections I totally disagree
1.       Die wichtigste Erklärung für die Hexenverfolgung ist die von den politisch Verantwortlichen (= Herrschenden) seit dem 16. Jahrhundert betriebene Bevölkerungspolitik mit dem Ziel der Erhöhung der Bevölkerungszahl.


2.       Durch die irrationale Stimmung gegenüber Hexen in der Bevölkerung wurden die politisch Verantwortlichen praktisch gezwungen, Hexenprozesse abzuhalten (siehe GO!6, Seite 43).


3.  Die Hexenverfolgung und die damit einhergehende „Abwertung von Frauen“ sowie die Durchsetzung des bürgerlichen Frauenbildes um 1800 (Kompetenz: Deutsch, Seite 65) hat große Nachwirkungen auf die gegenwärtigen Gender-Zuschreibungen und die gesellschaftlich vorherrschenden Geschlechterrollen.


4.       Die Darstellung im Buch The History of Psychiatry (= Material 14) gibt den von der Hexenverfolgung betroffenen Personen eine Mitverantwortung dafür, dass sie Opfer der Hexenverfolgung wurden.



Material 1

Neuzeit_Hexensabbat_1510Witches Sabbath. The most famous of a series of engravings the German artist Hans Baldung produced, starting 1510.


Material 2


The witch’s herbary. Engraving by Hans Weidlitz (1532) As the starry globe suggests, the „virtue“ of the herbs was strengthened by the proper astral conjunction.


Material 3


Witches cooking children. From Francesco Maria Cuazzo’s „Compendarium Maleficarum“, 1608


Material 4             


Women fly on their brooms to the Sabbat after applying unguents (Salben) to their bodies. 16th century French print from Thomas Erastus‘ „Dialogues touchant le pouvoir des sorcières“ (1570).


Material 5


Jan Luyken, The execution of Anne Hendricks for witchcraft in Amsterdam in 1571.


Material 6


Darstellung eines feierlichen Hexensabbats als Festessen – Ausschnitt aus einer Illustration von Jan Ziarnko (1612)




Material 7


The execution of witches in Chelmsford (Essex, England) in 1589. Joan Prentice, one of the victims, is shown with her familiars.


Material 8


A classic image of the English witch: old, decrepit, surroundes by her animals and her cronies, and yet maintaining a defiant posture. From: The Wonderful Discoveries of the Witchcrafts of Margaret and Philipp Flowers, 1619.


Material 9


Amerigo Vespucci landing on the South American coast in 1497. Before him, lying on a hammock, is „America“. Behind her some cannibals are roasting human remains. Engraving by Théodore Galle (1589)

Material 10


This graph, indicating the dynamics of the witch trials between 1505 and 1650, refers specifically to the area of Namur and Lorraine in France.


Material 11

The wages of an English carpenter,  expressed in kilograms of  grain:


YEARS                             KILOGRAMS OF GRAIN


1351 – 1400                        121,8

1401 – 1450                      155,1

1451 – 1500                      143,5

1501 – 1550                        122,4

1551 – 1600                          83,0

1601 – 1650                          48,3



Material 12 (Bild rechts): A dispute between a witch and an Inquisitor (before 1514)


Many women accused of witchcraft were old and poor. Often they depended on public charity for their survival. Traditionally considered a wise woman, old women were the ones who embodied the community’s knowledge and memory. The witch-hunts turned the image of the old woman upside down. The old woman became a symbol of sterility and hostility to life.

„Witchcraft is the weapon of the powerless“ – Old women were those in a community most likely to resist the transformation and often the destruction of the old, communal relations when they were replaced by modern, capitalist economic and social relations.


Material 13: Walter Charleton, „Ephesian Matron“, 1659


You are the true Hyenas, that allure us with the fairness of your skins and when folly has brought us within your reach. You leap upon us. You are the traitors of Wisdom, the impediment to Industry … the clogs to Virtue and the goads that drive us to all vices, impiety and ruin. You are the Fool’s Paradise, the wise man’s Plague and the Grand Error of Nature.

zitiert nach Federici, Caliban and the Witch, S. 162


Material 14: G. Alexander and S.T. Selesnick in „The History of Psychiatry“ (1978):


„The accused witches oftentimes played into the hands of the persecutors. A witch relieved her guilt by confessing her sexual fantasies in open court; at the same time, she achieved some erotic gratification by dwelling on all the details before her male accusers. These severely emotionally disturbed women were particularly susceptible to the suggestion that they harbored demon and devils and would confess to cohabiting with evil spirits, much as disturbed individuals today, influenced by newspaper headlines, fantasy themselves as sought-after murderers.“

zitiert nach Federici, Caliban and the Witch, S. 163


Material 15: John Riddle, Eve’s Herbs. A History of Contraception in the West (1999)

Middle Ages (Mittelalter

Frauen verfügen über Wissen zur Herstellung von Verhütungsmitteln – Kräuter, Tränke etc. – mit denen…

·         … Unfruchtbarkeit hergestellt werden konnte

·         … ein Schwangerschaftsabbruch eingeleitet werden konnte


Modern Period (Neuzeit)

·         Frauen wird die Kontrolle über Fortpflanzung genommen: Kriminalisierung der Verhütung und Abtreibung

·         Frauen werden in bisher nicht dagewesenem Ausmaß  auf Reproduktionsarbeit festgelegt (= Kinder und Haushalt)

·         Frauen werden aus Zünften (Berufsvereinigungen) hinausgedrängt



Material 16: Feministisch orientierte Historikerinnen erklären die Geschichte der Hexenverfolgungen

Die Untersuchung des Geschlechts (überwiegend weiblich) und der sozialen Klasse (ärmere Schichten) der „Hexen“ lässt für feministisch orientierte HistorikerInnen den Schluss zu, dass die Hexenverfolgungen …

  • … deshalb stattfanden, weil Hexen bzw. Frauen eine Bedrohung für die sich neu entwickelnden Machtstrukturen darstellten
  • … deshalb stattfanden, weil Hexen bzw. Frauen der ungehinderten Entfaltung neuer wirtschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Verhältnisse (= Frühkapitalismus) im Weg standen
  • … ein über zwei Jahrhunderte dauernder Krieg gegen die Frauen in Europa ebenso wie gegen die indigenen Frauen in Amerika war
  • … ein zentraler Teil des Prozesses der Abwertung der Frauen(-arbeit) und der Unterordnung der Frauen unter die Hoheit des Familienvaters waren
  • … ein Angriff auf die weibliche Kontrolle über die Reproduktion (= Kinderproduktion) waren. Diese war ein Hindernis für das – von den Machthabern seit dem 16. Jahrhundert verfolgte – Ziel einer Anhebung der Bevölkerungszahl. Der französische Jurist und „Politikberater“ Jean Bodin schrieb: „Man sollte sich nie davor fürchten, zu viele Untertanen oder Bürger zu haben, denn die Macht eines Gemeinwesens liegt in seinen Menschen.“
  • … das Ziel hatten, die Macht der Frauen zu brechen, welche sie durch ihre Sexualität, durch ihre Kontrolle über die Reproduktion und durch ihre Heilfähigkeit erlangt hatten

Geschichte der Hexenverfolgung

Das Wort „Hexerei“ wurde erstmals in einem Inquisitionsprozess in Luzern 1420 verwendet, und zwar für weibliche Häretikerinnen (Ketzerinnen) ebenso wie für Juden. Es besteht in gewissem Ausmaß eine Kontinuität von Judenverfolgung und Hexenverfolgung. Juden wurden im (Spät-)Mittelalter unter anderem auch als Giftmischer, Zauberer und Teufelsverehrer dargestellt. Weit verbreitet war auch die Vorstellung, dass Juden Ritualmorde an christlichen Kindern durchführten. Noch bis ins späte 20. Jahrhundert fanden in Tirol kirchliche Prozessionen zu Ehren des „Anderle von Rinn“ statt, das von Juden rituell ermordet worden sein soll.

Tatbestände, wegen denen Hexen angeklagt  wurden:

(mehr …)